Glossary of Key Terms
A framework for evaluating edtech tools based on the elements of accessibility, active
engagement, advocacy for inclusion, and accountability.
The degree to which content, programs, or tools support and accommodate the
needs and preferences of diverse learners.
A practical and theoretical approach to adult education,
where learners are autonomous and self-directed, and educators act as facilitators.
Adult Basic Education (ABE)
Adult education programs equivalent to zero through eighth grade.
Adult Secondary Education (ASE)
Adult education programs equivalent to ninth through twelfth grade. The primary
objective is to obtain a high school diploma or certificate.
Adults with Disabilities (AWD)
Individuals with cognitive, medical, physical, or sensory disabilities. Adult education
programs can provide modified equipment, instructional strategies, and materials to
meet the needs of these learners.
Educators and learners interact with the content and with each other at different
times. Asynchronous learning can happen within a structured schedule (e.g., weekly
deadlines) and include a combination of collaborative and independent activities.
Learning experiences that utilize digital or online learning tools that are connected to
Career Technical Education (CTE)
Adult education programs that deliver customized curriculum, including academic
career preparation and job readiness skills, to train learners for a specific career
pathway. Programs may include apprenticeship/internship opportunities or result in
Competency-Based Education (CBE)
A learner-centered approach that includes the following elements: learner choice,
meaningful and relevant assessment, differentiated instruction, mastery-based progress,
active and personalized learning, culturally responsive instruction, and clear
expectations for learning.
Someone who is “inclusive, equitable, and culturally aware as they live, learn, and
work in an interconnected world.”
“The condition in which individuals and communities have the information technology
capacity that is needed for full participation in the society and economy of the United States.”
Learning experiences that utilize digital tools for teaching and learning.
The ability to find, evaluate, organize, create, and communicate digital information.
“The awareness, skills, agility, and confidence to be
empowered users of new technologies and adapt to changing digital skill demands.”
Learning experiences that are influenced by an educational organization (i.e., not
private study) where the educator and learner are physically separated; educators and
learners use digital tools and two-way communication; and there are opportunities for social interaction.
English as a Second Language (ESL)
Competency-based programs designed to enable learners to become proficient
in speaking, listening, reading, writing, mathematics, and decision-making/problem-solving in the English language.
Experiential Learning Model
Establishes a learner’s experiences as central to the learning process. There are four
stages to the experiential learning model: concrete experience, reflective observation,
abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation.
General Educational Development (GED)
One of two California-approved high school equivalency tests. Includes four separate
exams: mathematical reasoning, reasoning through language arts, social studies, and science.
Focuses on the individual learner as the center of the learning process. Like
andragogy, the educator facilitates the learning process by providing resources and
support, but in heutagogy the learner fully owns the learning path and process.
High School Equivalency (HSE) Credential
California has two state-approved high school equivalency tests: GED and HiSET.
Learners who pass a high school equivalency test earn a state-issued HSE credential,
which is an alternative to a high school diploma.
High School Equivalency Test (HiSET)
One of two California-approved high school equivalency tests. Governed by ETS.
Includes five separate sections: language arts—reading; language arts writing; mathematics;
science; and social studies.
Hybrid Learning Model
Learning experiences that utilize digital or online learning tools, but digital learning
and face-to-face instruction are not connected.
HyFlex Learning Model
Learning occurs concurrently in physical and virtual spaces; learners choose whether
to attend class face-to-face or online.
The controlled, seamless, and secure exchange of data between applications.
Learning Management System (LMS)
A digital platform for storing and sharing digital content, managing assignments and
feedback, and communicating with learners.
Measurable Skill Gains
A WIOA indicator for evaluating program effectiveness. Adult education program
participants can demonstrate measurable skill gains by completing an educational
level through pre- and post-testing, credit completion, or entering a postsecondary
education program; or by earning a secondary school diploma.
National External Diploma Program (NEDP)
A competency-based and performance-based assessment that allows adult learners
to earn a regular high school diploma. NEDP participants build an electronic portfolio
to demonstrate their academic and digital skills through a series of life and work tasks.
National Reporting System (NRS)
Evaluates the effectiveness of adult education programs through reporting standards
for program outcomes and performance indicators.
Includes asynchronous and synchronous learning experiences that occur online,
whether in blended or hybrid learning environments. Online learning also includes
open-source content that is free and open to any interested learners.
Open Educational Resources (OER)
Freely accessible, openly licensed digital materials for teaching and learning.
How well a tool facilitates the learning process.
A form of computer-based assessment where learners take the assessment from their
homes or somewhere other than an approved testing location.
A model for technology integration that includes four stages of substitution,
augmentation, modification, and redefinition.
Social–Emotional Learning (SEL)
Includes the ability to:
- set and achieve positive goals;
- feel and show empathy for others;
- establish and maintain positive relationships;
- make responsible decisions; and
- understand and manage emotions.
Stages of Self-Directed Learning
The stages of self-directed learning include Stage 1: learner dependent on authoritative educator;
Stage 2: learner interested in the learning process with the educator
acting as a guide; Stage 3: learner involved in the learning process with the educator
acting as a facilitator; and Stage 4: learner is self-directed with the educator acting as a consultant.
Educators and learners interact with the content and with each other during live
sessions. Synchronous learning can include in-person activities or in digital spaces
(e.g., video conferencing sessions).
The ease of use and interaction between users and the tool.
An instructional framework that identifies three core components of content, pedagogy,
and technology as the foundation for high-quality teaching with the complex
interaction among the three components as critical to understanding how technology
integration is implemented within various contexts.
“Learning that transforms problematic frames of reference—sets of fixed assumptions
and expectations (habits of mind, meaning perspectives, mindsets)—to make them
more inclusive, discriminating, open, reflective, and emotionally able to change.”
Triple E Framework
A learner-centered instructional framework for helping educators implement effective
technology integration through engagement, enhancement, and extension.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG)
Commonly accepted digital accessibility standards that emphasize four content principles:
perceivable, operable, understandable, and robust.
Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA)
Federal policy that requires states to align workforce education programs with
performance goals focused on accountability, transparency, and improved workforce